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Cardiac: Coronary CCTA: Facts and Principles Imaging Pearls - Learning Modules | CT Scanning | CT Imaging | CT Scan Protocols - CTisus
Imaging Pearls ❯ Cardiac ❯ Coronary CCTA: Facts and Principles

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  • “The intent of CAD-RADS – Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System is to create a standardized method to communicate findings of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) in order to facilitate decision-making regarding further patient management.”

    
CAD-RADS™: Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System: An Expert Consensus Document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology.
Cury RC et al.
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec;13(12 Pt A):1458-1466.

  • “The suggested CAD-RADS classification is applied on a per-patient basis and represents the highest-grade coronary artery lesion documented by coronary CTA. It ranges from CAD-RADS 0 (Zero) for the complete absence of stenosis and plaque to CAD-RADS 5 for the presence of at least one totally occluded coronary artery and should always be interpreted in conjunction with the impression found in the report. Specific recommendations are provided for further management of patients with stable or acute chest pain based on the CAD-RADS classification.”


    CAD-RADS™: Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System: An Expert Consensus Document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology.
Cury RC et al.
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec;13(12 Pt A):1458-1466.

  • “The main goal of CAD-RADS is to standardize reporting of coronary CTA results and to facilitate communication of test results to referring physicians along with suggestions for subsequent patient management. In addition, CAD-RADS will provide a framework of standardization that may benefit education, research, peer-review and quality assurance with the potential to ultimately result in improved quality of care.”

    
CAD-RADS™: Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System: An Expert Consensus Document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology.
Cury RC et al.
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec;13(12 Pt A):1458-1466.

  • Reporting Standards
    BI-RADS (Breast Imaging with standardized reporting of screening mammograms )
    LI-RADS™ (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) for standardization reporting in patients with chronic liver disease.
    Lung-RADS™ (Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System) for standardization reporting of high-risk smokers undergoing CT lung screening.
    PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) for multi-parametric MR imaging in the context of prostate cancer.

  • “The goal of CAD-RADS, through standardization of report terminology for coronary CTA, is to improve communication between interpreting and referring physicians, facilitate research, and offer mechanisms to contribute to peer review and quality assurance, ultimately resulting in improvements to quality of care. Importantly, CAD-RADS does not substitute the impression section provided by the reading physician and should always be interpreted in conjunction with the more individual and patient-specific information found in the report.”


    CAD-RADS™: Coronary Artery Disease - 
Reporting and Data System: An Expert Consensus Document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology.
Cury RC et
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec;13(12 Pt A):1458-1466.

  • “The main clinical benefit of coronary CTA is derived from its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. The positive predictive value of coronary CTA is lower, and especially intermediate lesions may be overestimated regarding their relevance. Many patients with previously known CAD will include lesions that fall into this category, so that coronary CTA will need to be complemented by further tests.”


    CAD-RADS™: Coronary Artery Disease - 
Reporting and Data System: An Expert Consensus Document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology.
Cury RC et
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec;13(12 Pt A):1458-1466.

  • “The use of coronary CTA to assess patients with stable chest pain in the outpatient setting or acute chest pain presenting to the Emergency Department has been validated in various clinical trials. Major guidelines are incorporating the use of coronary CT angiography as appropriate for assessing low to intermediate risk patients presenting with chest pain. Decreasing the variation in reporting is one aspect that will contribute to wider dissemination in clinical practice, minimize error and to ultimately improve patient outcome. The main goal of the CAD-RADS classification system is to propose a reporting structure that provides consistent categories for final assessment, along with suggestions for further management.”


    CAD-RADS™: Coronary Artery Disease - 
Reporting and Data System: An Expert Consensus Document of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology.
Cury RC et
J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Dec;13(12 Pt A):1458-1466.

  • SCCT Grading for Coronary Artery Stenosis

  • CAD-RADS Reporting and Data System for patients presenting with stable chest pain

  • CAD-RADS Reporting and Data System for patients presenting with stable chest pain

  • CAD-RADS Reporting and Data System for patients presenting with stable chest pain

  • CAD-RADS Reporting and Data System for patients presenting with stable chest pain

  • Acute chest pain, negative first troponin, negative or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram and low to intermediate risk (TIMI risk score < 4)
     

  • Acute chest pain, negative first troponin, negative or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram and low to intermediate risk (TIMI risk score < 4) 

  • Acute chest pain, negative first troponin, negative or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram and low to intermediate risk (TIMI risk score < 4) 

  • Acute chest pain, negative first troponin, negative or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram and low to intermediate risk (TIMI risk score < 4) 

  • Acute chest pain, negative first troponin, negative or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram and low to intermediate risk (TIMI risk score < 4) 

  • Acute chest pain, negative first troponin, negative or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram and low to intermediate risk (TIMI risk score < 4) 

  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) for two-dimensional (2D) reading of CT angiography (CTA) studies performed for suspected acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding.
    CONCLUSION: Compared with a conventional PACS workstation, iPad-based preliminary 2D reading of CTA studies has comparable diagnostic accuracy for detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can be significantly faster.
    ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The iPad could be used by on-call interventional radiologists for immediate decision on percutaneous embolization in patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
    iPad-based primary 2D reading of CT angiography examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary experience.
    Faggioni L et al.
    Br J Radiol. 2015 Mar;88(1047)
  • " For both readers, there was no significant difference in agreement with the reference standard for per-vessel stenosis scores using either the 3D workstation or the iPad. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis including reader, workstation, and vessel as co-variates, there was no significant association between workstation type or reader and agreement with the reference standard (p > 0.05). Both readers identified 100 % of coronary anomalies using each technique."
    Remote reading of coronary CTA exams using a tablet computer: utility for stenosis assessment and identification of coronary anomalies
    Stefan L. Zimmerman, Cheng T. Lin, Linda C. Chu, John Eng, Elliot K. Fishman
    Emerg Radiol DOI 10.1007/s10140-016-1399-9
  • "However, in many institutions, coronary CTA access is limited to daytime and weekday hours, at least in part due to limits on availability of subspecialty trained physicians and the need for post-processing workstations. Remote reading of coronary CTA studies could expand access by providing a platform for after hour emergency department coverage on an as needed basis without requiring imagers to be in-house."
    Remote reading of coronary CTA exams using a tablet computer: utility for stenosis assessment and identification of coronary anomalies
    Stefan L. Zimmerman, Cheng T. Lin, Linda C. Chu, John Eng, Elliot K. Fishman
    Emerg Radiol DOI 10.1007/s10140-016-1399-9
  • "Coronary CTA with using a tablet computer is feasible with results that are no different from reading of cardiac exams on standard clinical workstations. On multivariate analysis, we found no significant relationship between the type of reading modality and accuracy of interpretation. Remote reading with a tablet computer could be used to expand availability of coronary CTA in the ED."
    Remote reading of coronary CTA exams using a tablet computer: utility for stenosis assessment and identification of coronary anomalies
    Stefan L. Zimmerman, Cheng T. Lin, Linda C. Chu, John Eng, Elliot K. Fishman
    Emerg Radiol DOI 10.1007/s10140-016-1399-9


  • Remote reading of coronary CTA exams using a tablet computer: utility for stenosis assessment and identification of coronary anomalies
    Stefan L. Zimmerman, Cheng T. Lin, Linda C. Chu, John Eng, Elliot K. Fishman
    Emerg Radiol DOI 10.1007/s10140-016-1399-9
  • “With current economic constraints, cost-effective strategies are needed to better risk stratify the patients. CCTA may represent a cost-effective, noninvasive tool for assessment of CAD and may be used as a gatekeeper for costly invasive procedures such as ICA in appropriate circumstances. Hence, further research especially randomized controlled trials are needed to validate the role of CCTA as a cost-effective means of CAD assessment and as a gatekeeper to ICA.”
Coronary computed tomography as a cost–effective test strategy for coronary artery disease assessment – A systematic review
    Zeb I et al.
Atherosclerosis Vol 234, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 426–435
  • “There are certain limitations to the use of CCTA as a gatekeeper to ICA. CCTA lacks the ability to provide the functional consequence of the anatomical lesions. There are concerns that the use of CCTA may result in increased radiation exposure for the patient. The current advances in the technology, improvements in image acquisition protocols and post processing of the images including iterative reconstructive has led to decrease in the radiation exposure associated with the use of CCTA. There are certain limitations that are inherent to the use of CCTA that limit the diagnostic accuracy of the test such as coronary artery motion, high CAC and image noise. Local expertise in the evaluation of CCTA is an important factor that significantly contributes to assessing diagnostic accuracy.”
Coronary computed tomography as a cost–effective test strategy for coronary artery disease assessment – A systematic review
    Zeb I et al.
Atherosclerosis Vol 234, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 426–435
  • “Recent studies now support the use of statin therapy in patients with CAC>0, and individualization of aspirin considering patient ASCVD risk factors, CAC severity, and factors that predispose to bleeding.”
Coronary computed tomography as a cost–effective test strategy for coronary artery disease assessment – A systematic review
    Zeb I et al.
Atherosclerosis Vol 234, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 426–435
  • “It is therefore of utmost importance that interventional cardiologists become familiar with image interpretation and up-to-date regarding several CTA features, taking advantage of this information in planning the procedure, ultimately leading to improvement in patient outcomes. On the other hand, the increasing use of CCTA as a gatekeeper for invasive coronary angiography is expected to lead to an increase in the ratio of interventional to diagnostic procedures and significant changes in the daily cath-lab routine. In a foreseeable future, cath-labs will probably offer an invasive procedure only to patients expected to undergo an intervention, perhaps becoming in this change true interventional-labs.”
    Computed tomography angiography for the interventional cardiologist.
    de Araújo Gonçalves P et al
    Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Aug;15(8):842-54.
  •  “On the other hand, the increasing use of CCTA as a gatekeeper for invasive coronary angiography is expected to lead to an increase in the ratio of interventional to diagnostic procedures and significant changes in the daily cath-lab routine. In a foreseeable future, cath-labs will probably offer an invasive procedure only to patients expected to undergo an intervention, perhaps becoming in this change true interventional-labs.”
    Computed tomography angiography for the interventional cardiologist.
    de Araújo Gonçalves P et al
    Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Aug;15(8):842-54.
  • “In recent years, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has become a widely adopted technique, not only due to its high diagnostic accuracy, but also to the fact that CCTA provides a comprehensive evaluation of the total (obstructive and non-obstructive) coronary atherosclerotic burden. More recently, this technique has become mature, with a large body of evidence addressing its prognostic validation. In addition, CT angiography has moved from the field of 'imagers' and clinicians and entered the interventional cardiology arena, aiding in the planning of both coronary and structural heart interventions, being transcatheter aortic valve implantation one of its most successful examples.”
    Computed tomography angiography for the interventional cardiologist.
    de Araújo Gonçalves P et al
    Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Aug;15(8):842-54.
  •  “In recent years, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has become a widely adopted technique, not only due to its high diagnostic accuracy, but also to the fact that CCTA provides a comprehensive evaluation of the total (obstructive and non-obstructive) coronary atherosclerotic burden. More recently, this technique has become mature, with a large body of evidence addressing its prognostic validation.”
    Computed tomography angiography for the interventional cardiologist.
    de Araújo Gonçalves P et al
    Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Aug;15(8):842-54.
  • “ Three large randomized trials (CT-STAT, ACRIN-PA, and ROMICAT II) have compared a coronary CTA strategy with current standard of care evaluations in >3000 patients. These trials consistently show the safety of a negative coronary CT angiogram to identify patients for discharge from the emergency department with low rates of adverse cardiovascular events, at significantly lower cost, and greater efficiency in terms of time to discharge.”
    Coronary CT angiography versus standard of care for assessment of chest pain in the emergency department
    Cury RC, Budoff M, Taylor AJ
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 7(2013):79-82
  • “ Together, these trials provide definitive evidence for the use of coronary CTA in the emergency department in patients with a low to intermediate pretest probability of coronary artery disease. Clinical practice guidelines that recommend the use of coronary CTA in the emergency department are warranted.”
    Coronary CT angiography versus standard of care for assessment of chest pain in the emergency department
    Cury RC, Budoff M, Taylor AJ
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 7(2013):79-82
  • “ Premature CHD is a common cause of death among firefighters with an average age of death of 44 years. Use of cardiac CT in firefighters may provide a more accurate method of risk assessment in this population.”
    Coronary calcium scoring independently detects coronary artery disease in asymptomatic firefighters: A prospective study
    Santora LJ et al.
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 7 (2013) 46-50
  • “ Firefighters have a high burden of calcified coronary atherosclerosis, greater than anticipated on the basis of age and coronary risk factors.”
    Coronary calcium scoring independently detects coronary artery disease in asymptomatic firefighters: A prospective study
    Santora LJ et al.
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 7 (2013) 46-50
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Cardiac CT
    Advantages
    - High temporal and spatial resolution
    - Three dimensional dataset
    - Rapid acquisition
    - Wide availability
    Complications of Aortic Valve Surgery: Manifestations at CT and MR Imaging
    Pham N et al.
    RadioGraphics 2012; 32:1873-1892
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Cardiac CT
    Disadvantages
    - Severe artifacts with certain prosthetic valves (Bjork Shiley)
    - Radiation exposure
    - Need for iodinated contrast material
    - Need for heart rate control
    - Irregular heart rhythm may lead to motion artifact (atrial fibrillation and ventricular extrasystoles)
    Complications of Aortic Valve Surgery: Manifestations at CT and MR Imaging
    Pham N et al.
    RadioGraphics 2012; 32:1873-1892
  • “ In patients with high likelihood of CAD, the performance of coronary CT angiography in the differentiation of patients without and patients with a need for revascularization and the selection of revascularization strategy was similar to that of cardiac catherization; accordingly, coronary CT angiography has the potential to limit the number of patients without obstructive CAD who undergo cardiac catheterization and to inform decision making regarding revascularization.”
    Coronary CT Angiography versus Conventional Cardiac Angiography for Therapeutic Decision Making in Patients with High Likelihood of Coronary Artery Disease
    Moscariello A et al
    Radiology 2012; 265:385-392
  • “ In patients with high likelihood of CAD, the performance of coronary CT angiography in the differentiation of patients without and patients with a need for revascularization and the selection of revascularization strategy was similar to that of cardiac catheterization.”
    Coronary CT Angiography versus Conventional Cardiac Angiography for Therapeutic Decision Making in Patients with High Likelihood of Coronary Artery Disease
    Moscariello A et al
    Radiology 2012; 265:385-392
  • “ Coronary CT angiography has the potential to limit the number of patients without obstructive coronary artery disease who undergo conventional cardiac catheterization and to inform decision making with regard to revascularization.”
    Coronary CT Angiography versus Conventional Cardiac Angiography for Therapeutic Decision Making in Patients with High Likelihood of Coronary Artery Disease
    Moscariello A et al
    Radiology 2012; 265:385-392
  • “Our findings also confirm the relatively low specificity of clinical decision making based on an abnormal SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging studies, as 59% of patients referred for cardiac catheterization on the basis of positive SPECT studies did not have obstructive CAD.”
    Coronary CT Angiography versus Conventional Cardiac Angiography for Therapeutic Decision Making in Patients with High Likelihood of Coronary Artery Disease
    Moscariello A et al
    Radiology 2012; 265:385-392
  • “The performance parameters of coronary CT angiography in this study, with a per-patient sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.6%, respectively, are consistent with the results of previous investigations that have demonstrated the strong performance of coronary CT angiography as a noninvasive alternative to conventional cardiac catheterization for the detection and exclusion of obstructive CAD.”
    Coronary CT Angiography versus Conventional Cardiac Angiography for Therapeutic Decision Making in Patients with High Likelihood of Coronary Artery Disease
    Moscariello A et al
    Radiology 2012; 265:385-392
  • “ In the setting of undifferentiated chest pain, CT Angiography (CTA) with its high sensitivity and specificity can be considered the modality of choice to diagnose suspected PE or aortic pathology such as aortic dissection or aneurysm.”
    ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Chest Pain-Low Probability of Coronary Artery Disease
    Hoffman U et al.
    J Am Coll Radiol 2012;9:745-750
  • “ Most important, in this low-risk population, cardiac CTA has nearly perfect negative predictive value to rule out significant CAD. Multidetector CT is also the primary method for diagnosing coronary anomalies, a rare cause of acute chest pain.”
    ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Chest Pain-Low Probability of Coronary Artery Disease
    Hoffman U et al.
    J Am Coll Radiol 2012;9:745-750
  • “ With advanced CT technology, it is possible to perform a single phase triple rule out examination allowing comprehensive assessment of CAD, aortic dissection, and PE. However, its efficiency or effectiveness has not been demonstrated.”
    ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Chest Pain-Low Probability of Coronary Artery Disease
    Hoffman U et al.
    J Am Coll Radiol 2012;9:745-750
  • “ Compared to patients with normal sinus rhythm (NSR), patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter had the highest radiation exposure, followed by those with premature atrial contraction /premature ventricular contraction. Even after adjustment for factors associated with radiation exposure a significant difference in radiation dose persisted.”
    The effect of heart rhythm on patient radiation dose with dual source cardiac computed tomography
    Techasith T et al.
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr (2011) 5;255-263

     

  • "Performing coronary CTA before cardiac catheterization is a cost effective strategy in the care of patients without symptoms who have positive stress test results when the probability that the patient has significant coronary disease is less than 50%."

    Cost Effectiveness of Coronary CT Angiography in Evaluation of Patients Without Symptoms Who Have Positive Stress Test Results
    Halpern EJ et al.
    AJR 2010; 194:1257-1262

     

  • "Significant Left main coronary artery disease was found in 2.4% of the 1,000 patients referred to 64 MSCT examinations. Age and male gender were the independent predictors for LMCAD."

    Prevalence of left main coronary artery disease among patients referred to multislice computed tomography coronary examinations
    Gemici G et al.
    Int J Cardiovasc Imaging (2009) 25:433-438

  • Triage with MDCT
    - CCS under 10 stop, over 10 go to CCTA
    - CCTA without 50% or greater stenosis stop
    - CCTA greater than 50% stenosis goes to catheter angiography
  • "Those with CCS>10 are then evaluated by noninvasive CT angiography (CTA) which has a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting coronary artery stenosis."

    Cost-effectiveness of MDCT compared with myocardial perfusion imaging as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography in asymptomatic firefighters with positive treadmill tests
    Budoff MJ et al
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr (2009) 3, 323-330

  • "In this firefighter population, the cost of ICA-confirmed diagnosis of CAD is substantially lower with MDCT as gatekeeper than with MPI (myocardial perfusion imaging)."

    Cost-effectiveness of MDCT compared with myocardial perfusion imaging as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography in asymptomatic firefighters with positive treadmill tests
    Budoff MJ et al
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr (2009) 3, 323-330

     

  • "This study demonstrates that coronary CT angiography is a cost effective method for evaluation of individuals with stable chest pain syndrome and intermediate CAD prevalence in the long term period."

    Cost-effectiveness of Coronary CT Angiography versus Myocardial Perfusion SPECT for Evaluation of patients with Chest Pain and No Known Coronary Artery Disease
    Min JK et al.
    Radiology 2010;254:801-808

  • "With a $20,000 threshold level for cost per correct diagnosis and $50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY), a coronary CT angiography-only approach is the most cost effective diagnostic strategy for evaluation of patients who have stable chest pain without known CAD with intermediate CAD prevalence."

    Cost-effectiveness of Coronary CT Angiography versus Myocardial Perfusion SPECT for Evaluation of patients with Chest Pain and No Known Coronary Artery Disease
    Min JK et al.
    Radiology 2010;254:801-808

     

  • Will Cardiac CTA help with patient selection?

    N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 11;362(10):943-5

    New Low Diagnostic Yield of Elective Coronary Angiography

    Manesh R. Patel, M.D., Eric D. Peterson, M.D., M.P.H., David Dai, M.S., J. Matthew Brennan, M.D., Rita F. Redberg, M.D., H. Vernon Anderson, M.D., Ralph G. Brindis, M.D., and Pamela S. Douglas, M.D.

    ABSTRACT Background Guidelines for triaging patients for cardiac catheterization recommend a risk assessment and noninvasive testing. We determined patterns of noninvasive testing and the diagnostic yield of catheterization among patients with suspected coronary artery disease in a contemporary national sample. Methods From January 2004 through April 2008, at 663 hospitals in the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry, we identified patients without known coronary artery disease who were undergoing elective catheterization. The patients' demographic characteristics, risk factors, and symptoms and the results of noninvasive testing were correlated with the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease, which was defined as stenosis of 50% or more of the diameter of the left main coronary artery or stenosis of 70% or more of the diameter of a major epicardial vessel. Results A total of 398,978 patients were included in the study. The median age was 61 years; 52.7% of the patients were men, 26.0% had diabetes, and 69.6% had hypertension. Noninvasive testing was performed in 83.9% of the patients. At catheterization, 149,739 patients (37.6%) had obstructive coronary artery disease. No coronary artery disease (defined as <20% stenosis in all vessels) was reported in 39.2% of the patients. Independent predictors of obstructive coronary artery disease included male sex (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64 to 2.76), older age (odds ratio per 5-year increment, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.30), presence of insulin-dependent diabetes (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 2.07 to 2.21), and presence of dyslipidemia (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.67). Patients with a positive result on a noninvasive test were moderately more likely to have obstructive coronary artery disease than those who did not undergo any testing (41.0% vs. 35.0%; P<0.001; adjusted odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.37). Conclusions In this study, slightly more than one third of patients without known disease who underwent elective cardiac catheterization had obstructive coronary artery disease. Better strategies for risk stratification are needed to inform decisions and to increase the diagnostic yield of cardiac catheterization in routine clinical practice.

     

  • "This proof of concept study shows the ability of dual-source CT scanners to scan the whole heart during one single heart beat at low radiation dose."

    Feasibility of dual source cardiac CT angiography with high pitch scan protocols
    Hausleiter J et al
    J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr (2009), 3,236-242

  • Common Sources of Artifact in CCTA
    - Breathing
    - Ectopic beat
    - Atrial tachycardia
    - Ventricular tachycardia
    - Sinus tachycardia
    - Gating problems
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